It’s the commonest female cancer in developed countries. It usually affects women over 6th or 7th life decade, 80% of those are women affected postmenaupausal. It very rarely affects women below 40 years old. Women presenting with endometrial cancer, and who are premenopausal usually have a history of polycystic ovaries.
- Diet and lifestyle: obesity is related to increased risk of developing endometrial cancer
- Hormonal therapy: Women under hormone replacement therapy with estrogen only and no progesterone are at increased rick
- Tamoxifen: It doubles the risk of developing endometrial cancer
- Early menarche- delayed menopause
- Polycystic Ovaries
- Diabetes, hypertension, gall bladder stones, predispose or frequently coexist with endometrial cancer
- Family history: Numerous malignancies in the family tree, history of bone cancer, or endometrial cancer
It should be noted that the use of contraceptive pills reduces risk by almost 50%
- Vaginal bleeding post menopause
- Bleeding in between menstrual periods or painful menstrual period
- Pain or discomfort in the pelvic area
- Vaginal secretions, especially in post menopausal women
Diagnosis is usually confirmed with the following:
- Endometrial biopsy
- Diagnostic curettage (D & C)
- Hysteroscopy (in specialized centers)
- Diagnostic Tests as CT, MRI and Ultrasound.
- PAP test is not meant to diagnose endometrial cancer just cervical cancer
- Surgery: Hysterectomy and oophorectomy as well as lymph node sampling is the main treatment approach for endometrial cancer
- Radiotherapy: It is often used after the surgery or as a preventative measure. In advanced disease, hormonal therapy, chemotherapy, and brachytherapy may also be used.