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Endometrial Cancer

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Endometrial Cancer

Definition

It’s the commonest female cancer in developed countries. It usually affects women over 6th or 7th life decade, 80% of those are women affected postmenaupausal. It very rarely affects women below 40 years old. Women presenting with endometrial cancer, and who are premenopausal usually have a history of polycystic ovaries.

Risk Factors

  • Diet and lifestyle: obesity is related to increased risk of developing endometrial cancer
  • Hormonal therapy: Women under hormone replacement therapy with estrogen only and no progesterone are at increased rick
  • Tamoxifen: It doubles the risk of developing endometrial cancer
  • Early menarche- delayed menopause
  • Polycystic Ovaries
  • Diabetes, hypertension, gall bladder stones, predispose or frequently coexist with endometrial cancer
  • Family history: Numerous malignancies in the family tree, history of bone cancer, or endometrial cancer

It should be noted that the use of contraceptive pills reduces risk by almost 50%

Symptoms

  • Vaginal bleeding post menopause
  • Bleeding in between menstrual periods or painful menstrual period
  • Pain or discomfort in the pelvic area
  • Vaginal secretions, especially in post menopausal women

Diagnosis is usually confirmed with the following:

  • Endometrial biopsy
  • Diagnostic curettage (D & C)
  • Hysteroscopy (in specialized centers)
  • Diagnostic Tests as CT, MRI and Ultrasound.
  • PAP test is not meant to diagnose endometrial cancer just cervical cancer


Treatment

  • Surgery: Hysterectomy and oophorectomy as well as lymph node sampling is the main treatment approach for endometrial cancer
  • Radiotherapy: It is often used after the surgery or as a preventative measure. In advanced disease, hormonal therapy, chemotherapy, and brachytherapy may also be used.

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Filed In: Endometrial Cancer